Similar to lots of other countries around the world, the history of Scotland is filled with lots of violence. With its citizens living together for centuries as a united kingdom, there have been lots of battles with some ending in victory while others in bitter loses.
It is difficult to have historians agree on some aspects like dates which is why most of the dates on this articles are estimates. This article does not consider the events of the last 400 years mainly due to the fact that Scotland had become a part of the British Empire during this period. This means we gave less attention to the last 400 years because Scotland then was part of the British Empire and mainly the English determined history. And probably we have left out a lot of events which were pretty important in one way or another.
Middle-Stone Age, till 3.500 BC.
Gatherers and hunters were the initial settlers on what is today Scotland similar to various locations across Europe. Farmers who had migrated from the European mainland in order to start various settlements around 4,500 BC set up the first settlements. In order to give room for expansion, including cattle grazing and crops crowing, there was a need to burn down wood. Some settlements also started homes close to the coast which brought about the addition of fish to their daily feeding menu.
New Stone Age, 3.500-2.000 BC.
With a majority of the inhabitants deciding on a position to settle permanently, the New Stone Age started around 3,500 BC. Through findings from archeological finds, it is easy to draw the conclusion that trade routes had been set up with Ireland while the other two parts of Scotland also carried out trading within the country. By deciding on a permanent location, the development of religion also followed. Contrary to the times of Hunter-gatherers, burial during this period involved the use of large tombs.
Bronze Age, 2.000-600 BC.
The next group of settlers to move in had a strong belief in the afterlife. Their belief included pouring beverages into stone cups and putting them into the tombs. These groups were also responsible for creating the mysterious stone circles of which 30 of them have been found in recent times. There is no clear indication of the purpose of these circles, but it is sure that the stones had to be carried from a far place and building the circles was a time-consuming process which also required lots of energy. The way the markings on the stones aligned, one explanation would be that it was to indicate different seasons.